prestressed concrete


Aircrete   Aerated concrete

links to Australia


links to New England

Links to Southern States

Links to the states starting with  A, B and C

Links states D,E,F, G, H, I

Links states K, L,M

Links states N

Links states O,P,R,S, T,V,W



Antique Pine Flooring, Historic Building Materials, Beams, Brick
Building Materials Classifieds in Alabama, United States
Building Materials Reuse Association -
Building Materials Wholesale Home - Welcome...
Building Materials Wholesale, Birmingham, AL on MacRAE's Blue Book Industrial Directory of Manufacturers
Mobile Lumber and Millwork
Welcome to Greens Mill Rustic Building Materials, Log Railings, and Log Stairs
Welcome To Marvin's Bulding Materials and Home Centers


Alaska concrete Cement Contractors
Alaska Anchorage Sand & Gravel Provides Concrete, Masonry and Building Materials to Alaska
Alaska building in Alaska
Alaska Building Materials
Alaska Concrete ContractorsAlaska Concrete Construction
Alaska Concrete Foundation Installation & Contractors
Alaska Concrete Technologies!Alaska Concrete Technologies Inc.
Alaska Concrete
Alaska Rivers Wood Products - Alaska Building Materials, Lumber, Cedar, Decks, Siding, Fencing, Roofing
Alaska SBS Home Improvement


Arizona Arizona Building Materials Directory AZB
Arizona Building Materials Contractors Arizona
Arizona Building Materials in Arizona, AZ - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Arizona Building Supplies -- Don't Waste...Donate!
Arizona Concrete contractor directory. AZB
Arizona Concrete Contractors Association Acca
Arizona Concrete Directory of Arizona
Arizona Concrete
ArizonaUsed Building Materials classifieds, Salvage Building MaterialsArizona, Reclaimed Building Materials Phoenix Arizona, Surplus


Arkansas ARMCAArkansas Ready Mixed Concrete Association
Arkansas AWMA - Arkansas Wood Manufacturers Association
Arkansas Building Materials in Arkansas, AR - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Arkansas Building Materials in Arkansas, United States
Arkansas Concrete Contractors
Arkansas Concrete Cutting & Coring, Inc.
Arkansas Concrete
ArkansasDecorative Concrete By Concrete Illusions - Decorative Concrete,Decorative Concrete Arkansas, Acid Stained Concrete, Acid Stai
Arkansas Northwest Arkansas Construction
Arkansas Wood Lumber Co., Inc., Features Lock-Deck Laminated Decking and More


CaliforniaConcrete Promotion Council of Northern California
California Building Materials Directory of California
California CBMDA Building materials dealers association
California Concrete Masonry Association of California and Nevada
California Green Building Design and Construction Home Page
CaliforniaMasonry, stone, blocks, bricks, barbeques and firewood throughout LosAngeles County, Orange County, Riverside County, San Bern
California NorCal Building Materials, Inc.
California Precast Concrete Association - CPCA


Colorado BMC West lumber, building materials, doors, millwork, trusses for homebuilders
Colorado Building Materials in Colorado Springs Colorado (CO) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Colorado coloradoconcrete.com
Colorado Concrete Contractors
Colorado Facilities Management - Campus ArchitectUniversity of Colorado at Boulder
Colorado Hardscapes Opens New Design Center, Denver, CO - The Concrete Network
Colorado Pipe and Concrete
Colorado Rocky Mountain Materials & Asphalt Landscaping Materials, Asphalt, Pre-Mix Concrete Colorado Springs, Colorado
Colorado Springs Building Materials
ColoradoStamped Concrete colorado decorative concrete denver colorado concreteworks of colorado pondless waterfall denver landscape


Connecticut Ctclix.com Connecticut Web Directory ShoppingLumber and Building Supplies
Connecticut IN THE REGION Connecticut and Westchester; Do-It-Yourselfers as General Contractors - New York Times
Connecticut J.B. Concrete Products - Putnam Connecticut Concrete Manufacturing
Connecticut Tilcon concrete
Connecticut Valley Building Supply
Connecticut Yellow Pages Asphalt and Concrete


Delaware About Madison Concrete Construction - Delaware Valley's leading concrete construction expert
Delaware Building Materials - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Delaware Building Materials Companies
Delaware Concrete ContractorsDelaware Concrete Construction
Delaware Concrete Contractors
DelawareConcrete Mixer Delaware - Delaware, Concrete Mixer, Delaware CementMixers, Delaware Mortar Mixers, Delaware concrete dealers
Delaware Concrete
Delaware The Mid-Atlantic Group
Delaware Valley Concrete




GeorgiaBuilding Materials - Atlanta, Georgia
GeorgiaBuilding Materials In Atlanta Georgia, Suppliers in Atlanta GA, Real Estate Zing
GeorgiaConstruction and Demolition Materials Exchange -- Waste Exchange & Byproduct Synergy
GeorgiaLafarge Building Materials - Concrete Plant, Savannah, GA 31415
GeorgiaWholesale Building Materials, Construction Supplies. Stockbridge, Georgia - Home
GeorgiaZachry Construction - Commercial
Georgia Brewery Floor Tile - ProBrewer Interactive
Georgia Building Materials Classifieds - Free Georgia Building Materials Classified Ads
Georgia Concrete & Products Association
Georgia General Contractors
Georgia Slurry Grouting
Georgia-Pacific Gypsum and Quiet Solution Announce Paperless Soundproof Drywall New QuietRock DensArmor Plus 528 is the Most C


Hawaiiccpi hawaii.org
Hawaii Ameron International
Hawaii Brick WallsHawaii Brick RepairHawaii Brick Contractors
Hawaii Building Materials , HI - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Hawaii Building Materials -
Hawaii building materials, construction materials, and general home building supply
Hawaii concrete and landscaping, Kona, Hilo, Waimea - Beaudet Earthworks serving the entire Big Island
Hawaii Concrete Contractors
Hawaii Concrete
Hawaii Custom Home Packages Building Materials Panelized Design
Hawaii Knife River Corporation - Locations - West Hawaii Concrete
Hawaii Knife River Corporation
Hawaii Lokahi Stone, Honolulu, Hawaii - Concrete Decor


Idaho Building Materials, Products, Manufacturers - Sweets Network
Idaho ConcreteStaker and Parson Companies
Idaho Concrete Company
Idaho Concrete Contractors
Idaho Concrete Raising
Idaho Concrete
Idaho Hometowne Construction, Inc. - Coeur d'Alene, North Idaho Concrete Contractors
Idaho ICAPA - Idaho Concrete & Aggregate Producers Association
Idaho Lakeland Company, Idaho - Concrete Decor - Vol 3, No 3 - Contractor Profile
Idaho Travis Perkins


Illinois Badger Corrugating Company - Building Materials Distributor Serving Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and Illinois
Illinois Building Materials - Bedford Park, Chicago, Orland Park, Illinois - Central Siding Roofing & Windows
Illinois Building Materials Reuse Association -
Illinois ChicagoConcrete Contractor-Enterprise Concrete Company
Illinois Concrete Co Inc, Champaign, IL on MacRAE's Blue Book Industrial Directory of Manufacturers
Illinois Concrete ContractorsIllinois Concrete Construction
Illinois concrete
Illinois Edward Hines Lumber Co. - Lumber and Building Materials in Chicago, Illinois, Indiana
Illinois Rockford, Illinois Building Materials & Components DexKnows.com


Indiana Bloomington IndianaBuilding MaterialsBusiness and Nonprofit Directory
Indiana Building & Facility Maintenance Show 1551 Thoreau Drive Schaumburg IL 2007 Glen Ellyn
Indiana Building Materials - Indianapolis, Indiana
Indiana Building Materials in Indiana Pennsylvania (PA) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Indiana Concrete ContractorsIndiana Concrete Construction
Indiana Concrete Contractors
Indiana Concrete Landscape Borders - Concrete Edging - Landscape Curb
Indiana Henderson Construction Indiana - Ohio - Michigan Concrete Specialsts
Indiana IRMCA - Indiana Ready Mixed Concrete Association
Indiana Kentucky-Indiana Lumber & Building ProductsVolume-Price-Service Since 1932
Indiana Rock Concrete Construction, Indianapolis, Indiana, Concrete Construction, Concrete Contractor
Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio Concrete Pipe Association


Iowa -waste-recycling-files-iowacase.pdf
Iowa Asbestos News - Asbestos In School Containing Building Materials Include Fireproofing Material Sprayed On Beams
Iowa Better Concrete Conference
Iowa Building Materials in Iowa, IA - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Iowa concrete and midwest ICF from Hawkeye Ready-Mix, Inc.
Iowa Concrete Pavement Preservation Workshop, March 20–21, 2008
Iowa Concrete Paving Association
Iowa Concrete
Iowa Green Building Supply, Non Toxic Supplies, Environmentally Friendly Materials
Iowa IPC Home
IowaManatts Construction Company, Iowa, Ready-mix Concrete, Asphalt Paving,Concrete Paving, Seal Coat, Water Line, Sewer Line, Tre
Iowa news Service Iowa State University
Iowa State Concrete Canoe


Kansas Building Materials - Wichita, Kansas
Kansas Building Materials Reuse Association -
Kansas City concrete
Kansas Concrete Construction in Wichita, Kansas - Concrete Repair Resurfacing Decorative Restoration
Kansas Concrete Contractors in Kansas
Kansas Concrete Directory
Kansas Concrete Mixer Kansas - Kansas, Concrete Mixer, Kansas Cement Mixers, Kansas Mortar Mixers, Kansas concrete dealers
Kansas Concrete Promotional Group
Kansas Concrete Sawing & Drilling Association
Kansas concrete
Kansas foamglass - Offers for foamglass - exporters, manufacturers, suppliers, wholesale, Traders, factories, Companies
Kansas Foamglass Insulation
Kansas Habitat ReStore--Home Page
Kansas KS Concrete Online
Kansas Lawrence Journal-World - Marketplace - Building Materials & Supplies
Kansas MOKAN
Kansas Pittsburg, Kansas (KS)
Kansas Spellman Construction - Hutchinson, Kansas Concrete Contractors


Kentucky Building Materials - Louisville
Kentucky Concrete Contractors
Kentucky Concrete Pavement Association
Kentucky Concrete
Kentucky Department of Library Special Collections -- Manuscripts
Kentucky Ki-Lumber.com
Kentucky KY Building Material Auctions Peak Auctioneering at Kentucky Fair & Exposition Center
Kentucky Lexington,Concrete Products and Block - Meade Concrete Products-Block and Stone
Kentucky Library
Kentucky Office of Housing, Buildings, and Construction - Home
Kentucky Salvage Building Materials is your best source for LAMINATE in Kentucky


louisianaAllPages.com - Building Supplies & Materials, Abita Springs, Yellow Pages, Louisiana (LA)
louisianaBuilding Materialsstructural panels InformationZoomInfo
louisianaBuilding Materials - Baton Rouge, Louisiana
louisianaBuilding Materials Reuse Association -
louisianaConcrete Directory of Louisiana
louisiana Building Materials in Baton Rouge Louisiana (LA) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Louisiana Concrete


Maine AllPages.com - Building Supplies & Materials, Caribou, Yellow Pages, Maine (ME)
Maine Building Materials in Scarborough Maine (ME) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Maine Concrete Brick
Maine Concrete Mixer Maine - Maine, Concrete Mixer, Maine Cement Mixers, Maine Mortar Mixers, Maine concrete dealers
Maine Gagne and Son - Maine Concrete Block Manufacturer - Belgrade Location
Maine Michael Littlefield, Custom Concrete Design, Wells, Maine - Concrete Decor


Massachusetts Building Materials and Wood Technology - UMass Amherst
Massachusetts Building Materials in Massachusetts, MA - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Massachusetts Concrete ContractorsMassachusetts Concrete Construction
Massachusetts Concrete Contractors


Maryland Baltimore,Renovations, Excavation, Concrete, Masonry, Excavating Equipment, Foundations, Asphalt Paving, Water Proof
Maryland Building Materials Companies
Maryland Building materials, Furniture, Business Equipment. Rosedale, Maryland. - Home
Maryland Cinder & Concrete Block CorporationCockeysvilleBaltimoreMaryland
Maryland Concrete ContractorsMaryland Concrete Construction
Maryland Concrete Contractors
Maryland Concrete Driveway Paving & Repair Baltimore Maryland
Maryland Concrete Foundations, Inc.
Maryland Concrete
Maryland Construction, Concrete, Paving, Underground Utilities, Maryland, Stambaugh's, Inc., Union Bridge, MD
Maryland DNR - Maryland Green Building Network Minutes
Maryland Maisel Brothers Inc. - MD Concrete Block Manufacturers since 1910
Maryland MD Concrete Contractors, DL Sanborn Concrete Construction
Maryland Portable ConcreteFamily Pride, Customer Friendly
Maryland STYLE Home Makeover Guide, building materials, Baltimore, Maryland


Michigan Building Materials in Michigan, MI - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Michigan Building Supplies and Material Michigan Companies and Stores
Michigan Concrete Association - Home Page
Michigan Concrete Canoe - MCC Home
Michigan Concrete Contractors
Michigan Concrete Directory
Michigan Concrete Homes
Michigan Concrete Paving Association
Michigan Concrete
Michigan Lumber and building materials retail stores in Michigan's Upper Peninsula41 Lumber
Michigan Preston Feather Building Centers Materials for Petoskey, Gaylord, Harbor Springs Michigan


Minnesota Building Materials Database
Minnesota Building Materials in Minneapolis Minnesota (MN) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Minnesota Concrete & Masonry Contractors Association
Minnesota Concrete Contractors
Minnesota Concrete Council
Minnesota Concrete Is Better - Official website of CPAM
Minnesota concrete
Minnesota MCMA.
Minnesota MinneapolisCustom Concrete Stamping and Concrete Structures
Minnesota Mold in Homes Environmental Health in Minnesota
Minnesota Saint Paul, Minnesota Building Material Wholesalers & Manufacturers DexKnows.com
Minnesota Southern Minnesota Concrete. Quality Concrete at Affordable Prices
Aggregates (brick, block, stone, etc.) Category -- Mineral Recycling
American Builder Surplus List of Surplus Building Materials with Standard Construction Divisions Specifications.
Antique & Used Architectural Building Materials in Portland Oregon, Portland Antique & Used Architectural Building Materials li
Building Materials Classifieds in Perkinston, Mississippi
Building Materials, Bricks, & Stone Products. Jacksonville, FL
Building materials
Building Stone Institute - Who's Who
Colona Building Materials
East Mississippi Lumber Company
Pearl Building Materials
Portland Building Materials
River Valley Stone - Home
Welcome to A and M Builders - Residential-Commercial Construction Tennessee-Mississippi


Missouri Concrete Contractors
MissouriConcrete Mixer Missouri - Missouri, Concrete Mixer, Missouri CementMixers, Missouri Mortar Mixers, Missouri concrete dealers
Missouri Home Centers in St Louis, Missouri (MO) - LocalSearch.com
Missouri Joplin Building Material Products, CAD, Specs, Catalogs - Sweets Network
Missouri MCA
Missouri Mobile Concrete Laboratory Library - Concrete - Pavements - FHWA
Missouri Perkins Lumber Do-it Center Steelville Missouri. building materials, hardware and rental center.
Missouri Rumford Dealers
Missouri S&T News and Research Missouri Concrete Conference to be held April 29-30 at Missouri S&T
Missouri University of Science and Technology, Distance & Continuing Education


Montana Billings Montana Concrete Contractors
Montana BMC West lumber, building materials, doors, millwork, trusses for homebuilders
Montana Bozeman House green building and renovation information and sources in Bozeman MontanaIndex
Montana Brick WallsMontana Brick RepairMontana Brick Contractors
Montana Building Materials & Supplies Missoula Montana Area
Montana Concrete Contractors
Montana Concrete Mixer Montana - Montana, Concrete Mixer, Montana Cement Mixers, Montana Mortar Mixers, Montana concrete dealers
Montana EPIcenterState University's Green Building Project
Montana Kalispell Montana Chamber of Commerce - Business in Flathead Valley & Glacier Park
Montana precast concrete fence walls
Montana Western Montana in Business – Missoula, Montana  Business, Commercial, Networking news and resources


Nebraska Building Materials in Omaha Nebraska (NE) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Nebraska Concrete and Aggregates AssociationSupplyMine
Nebraska Concrete Coatings - Mc Cook, NE, 69001 - Citysearch
Nebraska Concrete Coatings, LLC
Nebraska Concrete Contractors
Nebraska Concrete Paving Association
Nebraska EcoStores
Nebraska NC&AA Home
Nebraska Nebraska 1994GrantsJobs Through RecyclingWastesEPA
Nebraska Omaha Building Materials, Building Supplies in Omaha NebraskaDex



BMC West lumber, building materials, doors, millwork, trusses for homebuilders
Building Materials Holding Corporation Reports RecordFirst Quarter Net Income. Company Activities & Management Financial Pe
Building Materials in Nevada Missouri (MO) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Building Materials
Grass Valley Building Materials & Supplies
Hardware-Retail Lawn & Garden in Las Vegas, Nevada (NV) - LocalSearch.com
Home Centers in Las Vegas, Nevada (NV) - LocalSearch.com
Las Vegas Nevada LUMBER & OTHER BUILDING MATERI - Flash Player Installation
Las Vegas NV Junk Removal Las Vegas Trash Removal Remove Debris
Tetrus Building Materials opens Carson City store Nevada Appeal Serving Carson City, Nevada
Tool Rental Hardware & Tools in Las Vegas, Nevada (NV) - LocalSearch.com

New Hampshire

New Hampshire (NH) Building & Building Supplies Services for building owners from across New Hampshire
New Hampshire Building Materials in New Hampshire on ThomasNet.com
New Hampshire Building Materials Reuse Association -
New Hampshire Building Supplies NH, Building Supply Store NHEast Coast Lumber
New Hampshire Concrete Contractors in New Hampshire on ThomasNet.com
New Hampshire Concrete Cutting New Hampshire Cutting Doorways Windows Concrete Foundations
New Hampshire Concrete Directory of New Hampshire
New Hampshire Concrete Foundation Installation & Contractors
New Hampshire Concrete

New Jersey

New Jersey Arcat - building materials
New Jersey Basics of Concrete Barriers
New Jersey Bridge Rail Guide - New Jersey Concrete Barrier
New Jersey Building Materials Directory of New Jersey
New Jersey Building materials including Stone, Gravel, Sand, Topsoil, & Aggregate materials delivery to NJ & NY
New Jersey Building Supply, NJ building supplies, lumber, yards, hardware, stores, lighting,
New Jersey Concrete & Aggregate Association
New Jersey Concrete Contractors
New Jersey Concrete Directory
New Jersey LL ContractingContractor, NJProviding Tile, South Jersey Concrete Installation, EP Henry Pavers, Paving, Kitch
New Jersey Universal Supply Company -Building Materials Supplier - Home
New Jersey Welcome to the Concrete Pipe Association of New Jersey

New Mexico

New Mexico Building & Construction in Mexico -- U.S. Commercial Service Mexico
New Mexico Building Materials in Belen New Mexico (NM) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
NewMexico Cedar Crest — Green Home For Sale Stunning Concrete & SteelHome on 2 Acres.Passive Solar,Trombe Wall and Conserv
New Mexico Concrete - Albuquerque,
New Mexico Concrete Contractors in New Mexico
New Mexico Concrete Countertop and Decorative Concrete Contractors in New Mexico
New Mexico Concrete Directory
New Mexico Construction Industries Division Rules and Law
New Mexico Pumice-Crete® Building Systems of New Mexico Pumice-Crete®
New Mexico Rustic Architectural Wood Products - Grand River Supply Albuquerque, NM ( New Mexico )

New York

New York Amazon.com Green Building Materials A Guide to Product Selection and Specification Ross Spiegel,Dru Meadows Books
New York Building Materials in New York New York (NY) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
New York CIB
New York City Fire Department - New York City Fire Academy
New York Concrete Contractors
NewYork Kistner Concrete - Buffalo, NY, Western New York, WNY, precast,concrete, home, basement, foundation, wall panels, grease inter
New York NY Concrete .com
New York NYC Department of Buildings
New York plumbingfoundation.org-pipecaster-notices-rcny_11_05_final_rule.pdf
New York Precast Concrete Association

North Carolina

North Carolina Building Materials in Raleigh North Carolina (NC) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
North Carolina Carolinas Concrete Masonry Association Concrete Masonry Block Framed Homes
North Carolina Concrete Construction - Tri-City Contractors
North Carolina Concrete Contractors in North Carolina on ThomasNet.com
North Carolina Concrete Countertop and Decorative Concrete Contractors in North Carolina
North Carolina Concrete Directory
North Carolina concrete
North Carolina IAF.net - Charlotte Building Materials Supplies - North Carolina Shopping Specialized Yellow Pages
North Carolina Mobile Concrete Laboratory Project Report 0205 NC - Concrete - Pavements - FHWA
North Carolina Superior Walls of North Carolina - Precast Concrete Wall, Basement, Insulation Panel, Energy Efficient


  North Dakota

North Dakota Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete in a North Dakota Highway.
North Dakota AllPages.com - Building Materials General, Minot, Yellow Pages, North Dakota (ND),
North Dakota Brick WallsBrick RepairBrick Contractors
North Dakota Building Materials, ND - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
North Dakota concrete
NorthDakota Concrete Mixer North Dakota - North Dakota, Concrete Mixer,North Dakota Cement Mixers, North Dakota Mortar Mixers, North Dakot
North Dakota Concrete, ND Community Profile City Data, Resources, Maps
North Dakota Concrete, North Dakota (58220) Conditions & ForecastWeather Underground
North Dakota Cretex concrete
North Dakota IDEAL Concrete Contractors, Inc. Bismarck North Dakota
North Dakota ND Ready Mix & Concrete Products Association
North Dakota State University
North Dakota Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete, Minuteman Facilities, Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota,




OhioWelcome to OCCA
Ohio Building MaterialsOH - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Ohio Building Materials Directory of Ohio
Ohio Concrete and Landscaping Rocks For Sale in Ohio
Ohio Concrete Construction Association
Ohio Concrete
Ohio Lumber and Building Supply
Ohio Masonry Association
Ohio mixed concrete


Oklahoma Acoustical Materials in Oklahoma on ThomasNet.com
Oklahoma Building Materials in Oklahoma City Oklahoma (OK) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Oklahoma C-Lumber-S-OK-T-Oklahoma+City-
Oklahoma City Concrete Contractors
Oklahoma Concrete Directory of Oklahoma
Oklahoma Minick Materials Supply Stone & Soil in Oklahoma City, OK
Oklahoma Ready Mixed Concrete Association - Home Page


Oregon Building Materials Directory
Oregon Building Materials in Klamath Falls Oregon (OR) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Oregon building materials, supplies, lumber, roofing
Oregon Chris's Concrete Engraving in Portland Oregon Concrete design, designer driveway engraved
Oregon Concrete and Aggregate Producers AssociationSupplyMine
Oregon concrete
Oregon OCAPA, Oregon Concrete & Aggregate Producers Association
Oregon Rinker buys another building materials group in Oregon - Business - Business
Oregon SkateOregon - A resource for Oregon public concrete parks
OregonSukita - Green Building and Natural Building in Portland Oregon -Sukita Green Building, Natural Building in Portland Oregon
Oregon Training for Decorative Concrete In Oregon - The Concrete Network


Pennsylvania Building Materials - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania Concrete Pipe Association
Pennsylvania Hartzel's Concrete - Pennsylvania Concrete - Ready Mixed
Pennsylvania PCA - Concrete Homes
Pennsylvania PCMA- Pennsylvania Concrete Masonry Association
Pennsylvania Woodland Building Supply

Rhode Island

Rhode Island Building Materials in Rhode Island, RI - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Rhode Island concrete work
Rhode Island JT's Lumber - Lumber and construction materials for Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, CT, MA, RI
Rhode Island Junk RemovalTrash RemovalRemove Debris
Rhode Island PRM Concrete, Ready Mix Concrete in Pawtucket Rhode Island
Rhode Island Shopping RI - Ready Mixed Concrete Companies in Rhode Island
South Carolina
Abbeville Building Materials Supplies - South Carolina Shopping Specialized Yellow Pages
Aiken, South Carolina Building Supplies and Materials Yellow Page Search and Business Directory Assistance
BREDL Clean Air Campaign
building material supplier greenville sc
Building materials & roof truss supplies. Lancaster, SC
Building Materials - Charleston, South Carolina
Building Materials Classifieds in Taylors, South Carolina (and within 500 miles)
Building Materials Classifieds in Taylors, South Carolina
Building Materials in South Carolina on ThomasNet.com
Columbia Waterproofing Materials in Columbia SC Yellow Pages by SuperPages
DoItYourself.com Links - Building Materials
Dorchester County, SC
IAF.net - Charleston Building Materials Supplies - South Carolina Shopping Specialized Yellow Pages
IAF.net - Greenville Building Materials Supplies - South Carolina Shopping Specialized Yellow Pages
Lafarge Building Materials Inc - Charleston, South Carolina (SC) Company Profile
Myrtle Beach Building Materials
Parksville, South Carolina Building Materials DexKnows.com
Plum Branch, South Carolina Building Materials DexKnows.com
SC Building Materials County SC Hardware County SC Contractors South Carolina
ScienceDirect - Construction and Building Materials Laboratory comparison study for the use of stone matrix asphalt in hot we

South Dakota

South Dakota Building Materials in Aberdeen South Dakota (SD) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
SouthDakota Building Materials, Manufacturing- List of Companies, Suppliers,Distributors, Importers, Exporters, Dealers, Factories in Sout
South Dakota concrete
South Dakota Cretex
South Dakota Gettysburg,(SD) Detailed Profile - relocation, real estate, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, news, sex of
South Dakota Install a Concrete Driveway South DakotaConcrete Flatwork & Floors
South Dakota Ready Mix Concrete Association
South Dakota Sioux Falls,Concrete Outline of USS South Dakota


Tennessee Brick WallsTennessee Brick RepairTennessee Brick Contractors
Tennessee Brimer Steel Erectors Knoxville Tennessee Concrete Forming formers crane service
TennesseeCarolinas-Tennessee Building Materials Association, Inc. - What doesCTBMA stand for Acronyms and abbreviations by the Free
Tennessee Concrete Contractors
Tennessee Concrete Directory
Tennessee concrete
Tennessee IAF.net - Knoxville Building Materials Supplies - Tennessee Shopping Specialized Yellow Pages
Tennessee SCS - Middle Tennessee Custom Swimming Pool and Decorative Concrete Contractors
Tennessee TN Concrete Association - Home
TennesseeWitt, Building Materials Knoxville Knoxville Lumber Company Tennesseeknoxville truss roofing materials knoxville ste


UtahConcrete & Masonry in Utah Home & Garden Services on Citysearch
Utah Concrete - Salt Lake City, Utah
Utah Concrete Contractors
Utah Dr. Arnold Wilson-- Why Build a Concrete Dome
Utah Junk RemovalTrash RemovalRemove Debris
Utah Southern Utah Concrete and Surfaces

Video Resources to Make Concrete At Home


Vermont Allen Lumber, Vermont Lumber Building Material and Home Improvement.
Vermont Building Materials in Vermont, VT - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Vermont Concrete Contractors
Vermont Concrete Manufacturer, Ready Mix Concrete Producer - S.T. Griswold Concrete & Ready Mix -
vermont concrete
Vermont Montpelier Concrete Contractors


Virginia BHS - [Building Materials Wood Ipe Trex Hardwood Landscaping Virginia VA]
Virginia concrete
Virginia Precast Concrete Association of Virginia -
Virginia Ready-Mixed Concrete Association - www.vrmca.com
Virginia Rustburg,Concrete World
Virginia Sustainable Building Materials Directory - Recycled, Reclaimed, and-or Non-Toxic Building Materials
Virginia Used-Reusable Lumber & Wood Exchange -- Used Building Materials


Washington Asbestos Summary
Washington Construction Materials and SuppliesSeattleWashington State in the Yahoo! Directory
WashingtonHistoryLink Essay Homer Hadley formally proposes a concrete pontoonfloating bridge across Lake Washington on October 1, 1921.
Washington Housing & Building Materials for Japan - Imported Housing & Export
Washington Pervious Concrete, Inc. Seattle, WA - Largest Installers in Washington State
Washington Science & Innovations - Porous Pavement
Washington State Conference of Mason Contractors

West Virginia

West Virginia Ashford Building Supplies and Materials Yellow Page Search and Business Directory Assistance
West Virginia Building Materials Clarksburg WVBuilding Supplies Clarksburg
West Virginia Building Materials Classifieds - Free West Virginia Building Materials Classified Ads
West Virginia Building Materials in West Virginia on ThomasNet.com
West Virginia Bunker Hill, Building Materials DexKnows.com
West Virginia Cement Contractors in Huntington West Virginia (WV) - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
WestVirginia Concrete - Ready Mixed - Bristol, Abingdon, Washington County,South West Virginia, Chilhowie, Meadowview, Lebanon, Glad
WestVirginia Concrete Mixer West Virginia - West Virginia, Concrete Mixer,West Virginia Cement Mixers, West Virginia Mortar Mixers, West Vi
West Virginia concrete
West Virginia WV Concrete Contractor License
West Virginia, Missouri Design Professionals Face Liability for Economic Losses Even Without Contracts


Wisconsin Building Materials Classifieds - Free Wisconsin Building Materials Classified Ads
Wisconsin Building Materials in Wisconsin, WI - Yellow Pages - Switchboard.com
Wisconsin Concrete Masonry Association - Home
Wisconsin Concrete Pavement Association ? Home
Wisconsin Concrete Pipe Association
Wisconsin concrete
Wisconsin Forest Products Laboratory -- Forest Service -- USDA
Wisconsin Fred Smith's Concrete Park, Phillips, Wisconsin
Wisconsin Ready Mixed Concrete Association
Wisconsin Seymour Lumber of Wisconsin - Building Materials
Wisconsin Streets & Recycling Department City of Madison, Wisconsin
Wisconsin UW - Madison Concrete Canoe Team - Home Page


Wyoming Concrete Association
Wyoming Concrete Contractors
Wyoming Concrete Industries, Camden Wyoming, DE on MacRAE's Blue Book Industrial Directory of Manufacturers
Wyoming Concrete Industries, Inc - Camden Wyoming, Delaware (DE)Company Profile
Wyoming concrete
Wyoming Department of Health
Wyoming Neiman Enterprises - Hulett, Wyoming
Wyoming Sample Building Materials, Hardware, Garden Supply, and Mobile Home Dealers Staffing Pattern Assuming 125 Employees in
Wyoming Smoot, Wyoming Building Materials & Hardware DexKnows.com


Concrete info  links

Concrete International information USA


Beton = concrete Francais
Beton = concrete Germany

Germany links

Dutch links


ColorView - Visualize Your Home - building products on homes you choose!
Hanson.biz Hanson Roof Tile
Insulation, Roofing Shingles, Basement Finishin - Flash Player Installation
MonierLifetile. The Tile Roof Provider.
Roofing & Other Quality Building Products GAF Materials Corporation



A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction and sized to be laid with one hand using mortar.


The oldest shaped bricks found date back to 7,500 B.C.[citation needed] They have been found in Çayönü, a place located in the upper Tigris area, and in south east Anatolia close to Diyarbakir. Other more recent findings, dated between 7,000 and 6,395 B.C., come from Jericho and Catal Hüyük. From archaeological evidence, the inven­tion of the fired brick (as opposed to the consid­erably earlier sun-dried mud brick) is believed to have arisen in about the third millennium BC in the Middle East. Being much more resistant to cold and moist weather conditions, brick enabled the construction of permanent buildings in regions where the harsher climate precluded the use of mud bricks.

By 1200 AD brick making was to be found across Europe and Asia, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In the Near East and India, bricks have been in use for more than five thousand years. The plain of the Tigris-Euphrates lacks rocks and trees. Sumerian structures were thus built of plano-convex mudbricks, not fixed with mortar or with cement. As plano-convex bricks (being rounded) are somewhat unstable in behaviour, Sumerian bricklayers would lay a row of bricks perpendicular to the rest every few rows. They would fill the gaps with bitumen, straw, marsh reeds, and weeds.

The Ancient Egyptians and the Indus Valley Civilization also used mudbrick extensively, as can be seen in the ruins of Buhen, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, for example. In the Indus Valley Civilization all bricks corresponded to sizes in a perfect ratio of 4:2:1.[citation needed]

In Sumerian times offerings of food and drink were presented to "the Bone god," who was "rep­resented in the ritual by the first brick." More recently, mortar for the foundations of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul was mixed with "a broth of barley and bark of elm" and sacred relics, accom­panied by prayers, placed between every 12 bricks.

The Romans made use of fired bricks, and the Roman legions, which operated mobile kilns, introduced bricks to many parts of the empire. Roman bricks are often stamped with the mark of the legion that supervised its production. The use of bricks in Southern and Western Germany, for example, can be traced back to traditions already described by the Roman architect Vitruvius.

In pre-modern China, brick-making was the job of a lowly and unskilled artisan, but a kilnmaster was respected as a step above the latter.[1] Early descriptions of the production process and glazing techniques used for bricks can be found in the Song Dynasty carpenter's manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 by the government official Li Jie, who was put in charge of overseeing public works for the central government's construction agency. The historian Timothy Brook writes of the production process in Ming Dynasty China (aided with visual illustrations from the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedic text published in 1637):

...the kilnmaster had to make sure that the temperature inside the kiln stayed at a level that caused the clay to shimmer with the color of molten gold or silver. He also had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze. To anonymous laborers fell the less skilled stages of brick production: mixing clay and water, driving oxen over the mixture to trample it into a thick paste, scooping the paste into standardized wooden frames (to produce a brick roughly 42 centimeters long, 20 centimeters wide, and 10 centimeters thick), smoothing the surfaces with a wire-strung bow, removing them from the frames, printing the fronts and backs with stamps that indicated where the bricks came from and who made them, loading the kilns with fuel (likelier wood than coal), stacking the bricks in the kiln, removing them to cool while the kilns were still hot, and bundling them into pallets for transportation. It was hot, filthy work.[2]

The idea of signing one's name on one's work and signifying the place where the product was made—in this case, bricks—was nothing new to the Ming era and had little or nothing to do with vanity.[3]As far back as the Qin Dynasty (221 BC–206 BC), the government required blacksmiths and weapon-makers to engrave their names onto weapons in order to trace the weapon back to them, lest their weapons should prove to be of a lower quality than the standard required by the government.[4]

In the 12th century, bricks from Northern Italy were re-introduced to Northern Germany, where an independent tradition evolved. It culminated in the so-called brick Gothic, a reduced style of Gothic architecture that flourished in Northern Europe, especially in the regions around the Baltic Sea which are without natural rock resources. Brick Gothic buildings, which are built almost exclusively of bricks, are to be found in Denmark, Germany, Poland and Russia.

During the Renaissance and the Baroque, visible brick walls were unpopular and the brickwork was often covered with plaster. It was only during the mid-18th century that visible brick walls regained some degree of popularity, as illustrated by the Dutch Quarter of Potsdam, for example.

The transport in bulk of building materials such as paper over long distances was rare before the age of canals, railways, roads and heavy goods vehicles. Before this time bricks were generally made as close as possible to their point of intended use. It has been estimated that in England in the eighteenth century carrying bricks by horse and cart for ten miles (16 km) over the poor roads then existing could more than double their price.

Bricks were often used, even in areas where stone was available, for reasons of speed and economy. The buildings of the Industrial Revolution in Britain were largely constructed of brick and timber due to the unprecedented demand created. Again, during the building boom of the nineteenth century in the eastern seaboard cities of Boston and New York, for example, locally made bricks were often used in construction in preference to the brownstones of New Jersey and Connecticut for these reasons.

The trend of building upwards for offices that emerged towards the end of the 19th century displaced brick in favor of cast and wrought iron and later steel and concrete. Some early 'skyscrapers' were made in masonry, and demonstrated the limitations of the material - for example, the Monadnock Building in Chicago (opened in 1896) is masonry and just sixteen stories high, the ground walls are almost 1.8 meters thick, clearly building any higher would lead to excessive loss of internal floor space on the lower floors. Brick was revived for high structures in the 1950s following work by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and the Building Research Establishment in Watford, UK. This method produced eighteen story structures with bearing walls no thicker than a single brick (150-225 mm). This potential has not been fully developed because of the ease and speed in building with other materials, in the late-20th century brick was confined to low- or medium-rise structures or as a thin decorative cladding over concrete-and-steel buildings or for internal non-loadbearing walls.


Methods of manufacture


Bricks may be made from clay, shale, soft slate, calcium silicate, concrete, or shaped from quarried stone.

Clay is the most common material, with modern clay bricks formed in one of three processes - soft mud, dry press, or extruded.

In 2007 a new type of brick was invented, based on fly ash, a by-product of coal power plants.

Mud bricks

The soft mud method is the most common, as it is the most economical. It starts with the raw clay, preferably in a mix with 25-30% sand to reduce shrinkage. The clay is first ground and mixed with water to the desired consistency. The clay is then pressed into steel moulds with a hydraulic press. The shaped clay is then fired ("burned") at 900-1000 °C to achieve strength.

In modern brickworks, this is usually done in a continuously fired tunnel kiln, in which the bricks move slowly through the kiln on conveyors, rails, or kiln cars to achieve consistency for all bricks. The bricks often have added lime, ash, and organic matter to speed the burning.

Bull's Trench Kilns

In Pakistan and India, brick making is typically a manual process. The most common type of brick kiln in use there are Bull's Trench Kiln (BTK), based on a design developed by British engineer W. Bull in the late 1800s.

An oval or circular trench, 6-9 meters wide, 2-2.5 meters deep, and 100-150 meters in circumference, is dug in a suitable location. A tall exhaust chimney is constructed in the center. Half or more of the trench is filled with "green" (unfired) bricks which are stacked in an open lattice pattern to allow airflow. The lattice is capped with a roofing layer of finished brick.

In operation, new green bricks, along with roofing bricks, are stacked at one end of the brick pile while cooled finished bricks are removed from the other end for transport. In the middle the brickworkers create a firing zone by dropping fuel (coal, wood, oil, debris, etc) through access holes in the roof above the trench.


The advantage of the BTK design is a much greater energy efficiency compared with clamp or scove kilns. Sheet metal or boards are used to route the airflow through the brick lattice so that fresh air flows first through the recently burned bricks, heating the air, then through the active burning zone. The air continues through the green brick zone (pre-heating and drying them), and finally out the chimney where the rising gases create suction which pulls air through the system. The reuse of heated air yields a considerable savings in fuel cost.

As with the rail process above, the BTK process is continuous. A half dozen laborers working around the clock can fire approximately 15,000-25,000 bricks a day. Unlike the rail process, in the BTK process the bricks do not move. Instead, the locations at which the bricks are loaded, fired, and unloaded gradually rotate through the trench.[5]

Dry pressed bricks

The dry press method is similar to mud brick but starts with a much thicker clay mix, so it forms more accurate, sharper-edged bricks. The greater force in pressing and the longer burn make this method more expensive.

Extruded bricks

In extruded bricks the clay mix is 20-25% water, this is forced through a die to create a long cable of material of the proper width and depth. This is then cut into bricks of the desired length by a wall of wires. Most structural bricks are made by this method, as hard dense bricks result, and holes or other perforations can be produced by the die. The introduction of holes reduces the needed volume of clay through the whole process, with the consequent reduction in cost. The bricks are lighter and easier to handle, and have thermal properties different from solid bricks. The cut bricks are hardened by drying for between 20 and 40 hours at 50-150 °C before being fired. The heat for drying is often waste heat from the kiln.

Calcium silicate bricks

The raw materials for calcium silicate bricks include lime mixed with quartz, crushed flint or crushed siliceous rock together with mineral colorants. The materials are mixed and left until the lime is completely hydrated, the mixture is then pressed into moulds and cured in an autoclave for two or three hours to speed the chemical hardening. The finished bricks are very accurate and uniform, although the sharp arrises need careful handling to avoid damage to brick (and brick-layer). The bricks can be made in a variety of colours, white is common but a wide range of "pastel" shades can be achieved..

Fly ash bricks

In May 2007, Henry Liu, a retired civil engineer, announced that he had invented a new brick composed of fly ash and water compressed at 4,000 psi (27,939 kPa) for two weeks. Owing to the high concentration of calcium oxide in fly ash, the brick is considered "self-cementing". The brick is toughened using an air entrainment agent, which traps microscopic bubbles inside the brick so that it resists penetration by water, allowing it to withstand up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles. Since the manufacturing method uses a waste by-product rather than clay, and solidification takes place under pressure rather than heat, it has several important environmental benefits. It saves energy, reduces mercury pollution, alleviates the need for landfill disposal of fly ash, and costs 20% less than traditional clay brick manufacture. Liu intends to license his technology to manufacturers in 2008. [6][7]


Influence on fired colour

The fired colour of clay bricks is significantly influenced by the chemical and mineral content of raw materials, the firing temperature and the atmosphere in the kiln. For example pink coloured bricks are the result of a high iron content, white or yellow bricks have a higher lime content. Most bricks burn to various red hues, if the temperature is increased the colour moves through dark red, purple and then to brown or grey at around 1300 °C. Calcium silicate bricks have a wider range of shades and colours, depending on the colorants used.

Bricks formed from concrete are usually termed blocks, and are typically pale grey in colour. They are made from a dry, small aggregate concrete which is formed in steel moulds by vibration and compaction in either an "egglayer" or static machine. The finished blocks are cured rather than fired using low-pressure steam. Concrete blocks are manufactured in a much wider range of shapes and sizes than clay bricks and are also available with a wider range of face treatments - a number of which are to simulate the appearance of clay bricks.

An impervious and ornamental surface may be laid on brick either by salt glazing, in which salt is added during the burning process, or by the use of a "slip," which is a glaze material into which the bricks are dipped. Subsequent reheating in the kiln fuses the slip into a glazed surface integral with the brick base.

Natural stone bricks are of limited modern utility, due to their enormous comparative mass, the consequent foundation needs, and the time-consuming and skilled labour needed in their construction and laying. They are however very durable and considered more handsome than clay bricks. Only a few stones are suitable for bricks. Common materials are granite, limestone and sandstone. Other stones may be used (e.g. marble, slate, quartzite, etc.) but these tend to be limited to a particular locality.

Optimal dimensions, characteristics and strength

For efficient handling and laying bricks must be small enough and light enough to be picked up by the bricklayer using one hand (leaving the other hand free for the trowel). Bricks are usually laid flat and as a result the effective limit on the width of a brick is set by the distance which can conveniently be spanned between the thumb and fingers of one hand, normally about four inches (about 100 mm). In most cases, the length of a brick is about twice its width, about eight inches (about 200 mm) or slightly more. This allows bricks to be laid bonded in a structure to increase its stability and strength (for an example of this, see the illustration of bricks laid in English bond, at the head of this article. The wall is built using alternating courses of stretchers, bricks laid longways and headers, bricks laid crossways. The headers tie the wall together over its width.

The correct brick for a job can be picked from a choice of color, surface texture, density, weight, absorption and pore structure, thermal characteristics, thermal and moisture movement, and fire resistance.

In England, the length and the width of the common brick has remained fairly constant over the centuries, but the depth has varied from about two inches (about 51 mm) or smaller in earlier times to about two and a half inches (about 64 mm) more recently. In the United States, modern bricks are usually about 8 × 4 × 2.25 inches (203 × 102 × 57 mm). In the United Kingdom, the usual ("work") size of a modern brick is 215 × 102.5 × 65 mm (about 8.5 × 4 × 2.5 inches), which, with a nominal 10 mm mortar joint, forms a "coordinating" or fitted size of 225 × 112.5 × 75 mm, for a ratio of 6:3:2.

Blocks have a much greater range of sizes. Standard coordinating sizes in length and height (in mm) include 400×200, 450×150, 450×200, 450×225, 450×300, 600×150, 600×200, and 600×225; depths (work size, mm) include 60, 75, 90, 100, 115, 140, 150, 190, 200, 225, and 250. They are usable across this range as they are lighter than clay bricks. The density of solid clay bricks is around 2,000 kg/m³: this is reduced by frogging, hollow bricks, etc.; but aerated autoclaved concrete, even as a solid brick, can have densities in the range of 450–850 kg/m³.

Bricks may also be classified as solid (less than 25% perforations by volume, although the brick may be "frogged," having indentations on one of the longer faces), perforated (containing a pattern of small holes through the brick removing no more than 25% of the volume), cellular (containing a pattern of holes removing more than 20% of the volume, but closed on one face), or hollow (containing a pattern of large holes removing more than 25% of the brick's volume). Blocks may be solid, cellular or hollow

The term "frog" for the indentation on one bed of the brick is a word that often excites curiosity as to its origin. The most likely explanation is that brickmakers also call the block that is placed in the mould to form the indentation a frog. Modern brickmakers usually use plastic frogs but in the past they were made of wood. When these are wet and have clay on them they resemble the amphibious kind of frog and this is where they got their name. Over time this term also came to refer to the indentation left by them.[Matthews 2006]

The compressive strength of bricks produced in the United States ranges from about 1000 lbf/in² to 15,000 lbf/in² (7 to 105 MPa or N/mm² ), varying according to the use to which the brick are to be put. In England clay bricks can have strengths of up to 100 MPa, although a common house brick is likely to show a range of 20–40 MPa.


In the early 1900s, most of the streets in the city of Grand Rapids, Michigan were paved with brick. Today, there are only about 20 blocks of brick paved streets remaining (totaling less than 0.5 percent of all the streets in the city limits). [1]

Bricks are used for building and pavement. In the USA, brick pavement was found incapable of withstanding heavy traffic, but it is coming back into use as a method of traffic calming or as a decorative surface in pedestrian precincts.

Bricks are also used in the metallurgy and glass industries for lining furnaces. They have various uses, especially refractory bricks such as silica, magnesia, chamotte and neutral (chromomagnesite) refractory bricks. This type of brick must have good thermal shock resistance, refractoriness under load, high melting point, and satisfactory porosity. There is a large refractory brick industry, especially in the United Kingdom, Japan and the U.S.A..

In the United Kingdom, bricks have been used in construction for centuries. Until recently, many houses were built almost entirely from red bricks. This use is particularly common in areas of northern England and some outskirts of London, where rows of terraced houses were rapidly and cheaply built to house local workers[citation needed]. These houses have survived to the present day. Although many houses in the UK are now built using a mixture of concrete blocks and other materials, many houses are skinned with a layer of bricks on the outside for aesthetic appeal.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Density1050 kg/m³
Density of EPS25-200 kg/m³
Specific Gravity1.05
Electrical conductivity (s)10-16 S/m
Thermal conductivity (k)0.08 W/(m·K)
Young's modulus (E)3000-3600 MPa
Tensile strength (st)46–60 MPa
Elongation at break3–4%
Notch test2–5 kJ/m²
Glass temperature95 °C
Melting point[1]240 °C
Vicat B90 °C[2]
Heat transfer coefficient(Q)0.17 W/(m2K)
Linear expansion coefficient (a)8 10-5 /K
Specific heat (c)1.3 kJ/(kg·K)
Water absorption (ASTM)0.03–0.1
DecompositionX years, still decaying

Polystyrene IPA: /?p?li?sta?ri?n/ is an aromatic polymer made from the aromatic monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. Polystyrene is a thermoplastic substance, normally existing in solid state at room temperature, but melting if heated (for molding or extrusion), and becoming solid again when cooling off.

Pure solid polystyrene is a colorless, hard plastic with limited flexibility. It can be cast into molds with fine detail. Polystyrene can be transparent or can be made to take on various colours. It is economical and is used for producing plastic model assembly kits, license plate frames, plastic cutlery, CD "jewel" cases, and many other objects where a fairly rigid, economical plastic is desired.




Polystyrene was discovered in 1839 by Eduard Simon,[3] an apothecary in Berlin. From storax, the resin of Liquidambar orientalis, he distilled an oily substance, a monomer which he named styrol. Several days later Simon found that the styrol had thickened, presumably from oxidation, into a jelly he dubbed styrol oxide ("Styroloxyd"). By 1845 English chemist John Blyth and German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann showed that the same transformationof styrol took place in the absence of oxygen. They called their substance metastyrol. Analysis later showed that it was chemically identical to Styroloxyd. In 1866 Marcelin Berthelot correctly identified the formation of metastyrol from styrol as a polymerization process. About 80 years went by before it was realized that heating of styrol starts a chain reaction which produces macromolecules, following the thesis of German organic chemist Hermann Staudinger (1881–1965). This eventually led to the substancereceiving its present name, polystyrene. The I. G. Farben company began manufacturing polystyrene in Ludwigshafen, Germany, about 1931, hoping it would be a suitable replacement for die cast zinc in many applications. Success was achieved when they developed a reactor vessel that extruded polystyrene through a heated tube and cutter, producing polystyrene in pellet form.


The chemical makeup of polystyrene is a long chain hydrocarbon with every other carbon connected to a Phenyl group (the name given to the aromatic ring benzene, when bonded to complex carbon substituents).

Image:Polystyrene formation.PNG

A 3-D model would show that each of the chiral backbone carbons lies at the center of a tetrahedron, with its 4 bonds pointing toward the vertices. Say the -C-C- bonds are rotated so that the backbone chain lies entirely in the plane of the diagram. From this flat schematic, it is not evident which of the phenyl (benzene) groups are angled toward us from the plane of the diagram, and which ones are angled away. The isomer where all of them are on the same side is called isotactic polystyrene,which is not produced commercially. Ordinary atactic polystyrene has these large phenyl groups randomly distributed on both sides of the chain. This random positioning prevents the chains from ever aligning with sufficient regularity to achieve any crystallinity, so the plastic has no melting temperature, Tm. But metallocene-catalyzed polymerization can produce an ordered syndiotactic polystyrene with the phenyl groups on alternating sides. This form is highly crystalline witha Tm of 270 °C.


Polystyrene's most common use is as expanded polystyrene (EPS). Expanded polystyrene is produced from a mixture of about 90-95% polystyrene and 5-10% gaseous blowing agent, most commonly pentane or carbon dioxide[4]. The solid plastic is expanded into a foam through the use of heat, usually steam.

Extruded polystyrene (XPS), which is different from expanded polystyrene (EPS), is commonly known by the trade name Styrofoam. The voids filled with trapped air give it low thermal conductivity. This makes it ideal as a construction material and it is therefore sometimes used in structural insulated panel building systems. It is also used as insulation in building structures, as molded packing material for cushioning fragile equipment inside boxes, as packing "peanuts", as non-weight-bearingarchitectural structures (such as pillars), and also in crafts and model building, particularly architectural models. Foamed between two sheets of paper, it makes a more-uniform substitute for corrugated cardboard, tradenamed Fome-Cor. A more unexpected use for the material is as a lightweight fill for embankments in the civil engineering industry [5].

Expanded polystyrene used to contain CFCs, but other, more environmentally-safe blowing agents are now used. Because it is an aromatic hydrocarbon, it burns with an orange-yellow flame, giving off soot, as opposed to non-aromatic hydrocarbon polymers such as polyethylene, which burn with a light yellow flame (often with a blue tinge) and no soot.

Production methods include sheet stamping (PS) and injection molding(both PS and HIPS).

The density of expanded polystyrene varies greatly from around 25 kg/m³ to 200 kg/m³ depending on how much gas was admixed to create the foam. A density of 200 kg/m³ is typical for the expanded polystyrene used in surfboards.[6]

The resin identification code symbol for polystyrene, developed by the Society of the Plastics Industry so that items can be labeled for easy recycling, is . However, the majority of polystyrene products are currently not recycled because of a lack of suitable recycling facilities. Furthermore, when it is "recycled," it is not a closed loop — polystyrene cups and other packaging materials are usually recycled into fillers in other plastics, or other items that cannot themselves be recycled and are thrown away.


Pure polystyrene is brittle, but hard enough that a fairly high-performance product can be made by giving it some of the properties of a stretchier material, such as polybutadiene rubber. The two such materials can never normally be mixed because of the amplified effect of intermolecular forces on polymer insolubility (see plastic recycling), but if polybutadiene is added during polymerization it can become chemically bonded to the polystyrene, forming a graft copolymer which helpsto incorporate normal polybutadiene into the final mix, resulting in high-impact polystyrene or HIPS, often called "high-impact plastic" in advertisements. One commercial name for HIPS is Bextrene. Common applications include use in toys and product casings. HIPS is usually injection moldedin production. Autoclaving polystyrene can compress and harden the material.

Acrylonitrile butadiene styreneor ABS plastic is similar to HIPS: a copolymer of acrylonitrile and styrene, toughened with polybutadiene. Most electronics cases are made of this form of polystyrene, as are many sewer pipes. ABS pipes may become brittle over time. SAN is a copolymer of styrene with acrylonitrile.

Styrene can be copolymerized with other monomers; for example, divinylbenzene for cross-linking the polystyrene chains.

Expanded polystyrene

Expanded polystyrene is very easily cut with a hot-wire foam cutter, which is easily made by a heated taut length of wire, usually nichrome because of nichrome's resistance to oxidation at high temperatures and its suitable electrical conductivity. The hot wire foam cutter works by heating the wire to the point where it can vaporize foam immediately adjacent to it. The foam gets vaporized before actually touching the heated wire, which yields exceptionally smooth cuts.

Polystyrene, shaped and cut with hot wire foam cutters, is used in architecture models, actual signage, amusement parks, movie sets, airplane construction, and much more. Such cutters may cost just a few dollars (for a completely manual cutter) to tens of thousands of dollars for large CNCmachines that can be used in high-volume industrial production.

Polystyrene can also be cut with a traditional cutter. In order to do this without ruining the sides of the blade one must first dip the blade in water and cut with the blade at an angle of about 30º. The procedure has to be repeated multiple times for best results.

Polystyrene can also be cut on 3 and 5-axis routers, enabling large-scale prototyping and model-making. Special polystyrene cutters are available that look more like large cylindrical rasps.


Manufacture of stone wool

Stone wool is a furnace product of molten stone, at a temperature of about 1600°C, through which is blown a stream of air or steam. More high tech production techniques are based on spinning molten rock (lava) on high speed spinning wheels. (compare with candy floss) The final product is a mass of fine intertwined fibres with a typical diameter of 6 to 10 micrometres. Mineral wool may contain a binder and an oil to reduce dusting and making it water repellent (hydrophobic).


The fibres themselves are excellent conductors of heat, but they package air so well, that when pressed into rolls and sheets, rockwool makes for an excellent and reliable insulator. Batts, sheets and roll made of rockwool are a poor conductor of heat and sound. Fire resistive properties for mineral wools is given here in descending order:

  1. fibreglass,
  2. stone wool,
  3. ceramic fibres.

No conventional building materials, including mineral wool are immune to the effects of fire of sufficient duration or intensity. However, each of the aforementioned three wools make common components in passive fire protection systems, such as in spray fireproofing, stud cavities in drywall assemblies required to have a fire-resistance rating, packing materials in firestops and more.

Mineral wools are unattractive to rodents but will provide a structure for bacterial growth if allowed to become wet.

Other uses are in resin bonded panels, growth medium in hydroponics, filler in compounds for gaskets, brake pads, in plastics in the automotive industry and as a filtering medium.


( from: Wikipedia )




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