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Friday, March 13, 2020

Milling Machine And Operations



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1. INTRODUCTION

2 PRINCIPLE OF MILLING

3 MILLING METHODS - UP and Down

4. TYPES OF MILLING CUTTERS

5. TYPES OF MILLING MACHINES

6. SIZE OF MILLING MACHINE

7. CUTTING PARAMETERS 

8 INDEXING AND DIVIDING HEADS

9 OPERATIONS OF MILLING MACHINE




1. INTRODUCTION


A milling machine is a machine tool that removes metal as the work is fed against a rotating multipoint cutter. The milling cutter rotates at high speed and it removes metal with the help of multiple cutting edges. Milling machine is used for machining flat surfaces, contoured surfaces, surfaces of revolution, external and internal threads, and helical surfaces of various cross-sections. In many applications, due to its higher production rate and accuracy, milling machine has replaced shapers and slotters.




2 PRINCIPLE OF MILLING


In milling machine, the metal is cut by means of a rotating cutter having multiple
cutting edges. The workpiece is fed against the rotary cutter. As the
workpiece moves against the cutting edges of milling cutter, metal is removed in form chips
of trochoid shape.  The work to be machined is held in a vice, a rotary table, a three jaw chuck, an index head, between centers, in a special fixture or bolted to machine table. The cutting speed of the cutting tool and the feed rate of the workpiece depend upon the type of material being machined and the tool being used.




3 MILLING METHODS


There are two distinct methods of milling classified as follows:

1. Up-milling or conventional milling, and

2. Down milling or climb milling.

1 UP-Milling or Conventional Milling Procedure

In the up-milling or conventional milling,  the metal is removed  by a cutter rotating against the direction of travel of the workpiece. In this type of milling, the chip thickness is minimum at the start of the cut and maximum at the end of cut. As a result the cutting force  varies from zero to the maximum value per tooth movement of the milling cutter. The major disadvantages of up-milling process are the tendency of cutting force to lift the work from the fixtures and poor surface finish
obtained. But being a safer process, it is commonly used method of milling.




2 Down-Milling or Climb Milling

Down milling is also known as climb milling. In this method,
the metal is removed by a cutter rotating in the same direction of feed of the workpiece. The
effect of this is that the teeth cut downward instead of upwards. Chip thickness is maximum
at the start of the cut and minimum in the end. In this method,  there is less friction involved and consequently less heat is generated on the contact surface of the cutter and workpiece. Climb milling can be used advantageously on many kinds of work to increase the number of pieces per sharpening and to produce a better finish. With climb milling, saws cut long thin slots more satisfactorily. Another advantage is that slightly lower power consumption is obtainable by climb milling, since there is no need to drive the table against the cutter.







4. TYPES OF MILLING CUTTERS




(1) Plain milling cutters,

(2) Side milling cutters,

(3) Face milling cutter,

(4) Angle milling cutters,

(5) End milling cutter,

(6) Fly cutter,

(7) T-slot milling cutter,

(8) Formed cutters,

(9) Metal slitting saw,

Milling cutters may have teeth on the periphery or ends only, or on both the periphery
and ends. Peripheral teeth may be straight or parallel to the cutter axis, or they may be
helical, sometimes referred as spiral teeth.


5. TYPES OF MILLING MACHINES


Milling machine rotates the cutter mounted on the arbor of the machine and at the same
time automatically feed the work in the required direction.


According to general design, the distinctive types of milling machines are:


1. Column and knee type milling machines

(a) Hand milling machine

( b ) Horizontal milling machine

(c) Universal milling machine

(d) Vertical milling machine

2. Planer milling machine

3. Fixed-bed type milling machine

(a) Simplex milling machine.

( b ) Duplex milling machine.

(c) Triplex milling machine.

4. Machining center machines

5. Special types of milling machines

(a) Rotary table milling machine.
( b ) Planetary milling machine.
(c) Profiling machine.
(d) Duplicating machine.
(e) Pantograph milling machine.
(f) Continuous milling machine.
( g ) Drum milling machine
(. h ) Profiling and tracer controlled milling machine

Some important types of milling machines are discussed as under.

1 Column and Knee Type Milling Machine

 In this type of milling machine the table
is mounted on the knee casting which in turn is mounted on the vertical slides of the main
column. The knee is vertically adjustable on the column so that the table can be moved up
and down to accommodate work of various heights.

The principal parts of a column and knee type milling machine are described as under.

Base

It is a foundation member for all the other parts, which rest upon it. It carries the
column at its one end. In some machines, the base is hollow and serves as a reservoir for
cutting fluid.

Column

The column is the main supporting member mounted vertically on the base. It is box
shaped, heavily ribbed inside and houses all the driving mechanism for the spindle and table
feed. The front vertical face of the column is accurately machined and is provided with
dovetail guideway for supporting the knee.

Knee

The knee is a rigid grey iron casting which slides up and down on the vertical ways of
the column face. An elevating screw mounted on the base is used to adjust the height of the
knee and it also supports the knee. The knee houses the feed mechanism of the table, and
different controls to operate it.

Saddle

The saddle is placed on the top of the knee and it slides on guideways set exactly at 90°
to the column face. The top of the saddle provides guide-ways for the table.

Table

The table rests on ways on the saddle and travels longitudinally. A lead screw under the
table engages a nut on the saddle to move the table horizontally by hand or power. In
universal machines, the table may also be swiveled horizontally. For this purpose the table
is mounted on a circular base. The top of the table is accurately finished and T -slots are
provided for clamping the work and other fixtures on it

Overhanging arm

It is mounted on the top of the column, which extends beyond the column face and serves
as a bearing support for the other end of the arbor.


Front brace

It is an extra support, which is fitted between the knee and the over-arm to ensure
further rigidity to the arbor and the knee.

Spindle

It is situated in the upper part of the column and receives power from the motor through
belts, gears, and clutches and transmit it to the arbor.

Arbor

It is like an extension of the machine spindle on which milling cutters are securely
mounted and rotated. The arbors are made with taper shanks for proper alignment with the
machine spindles having taper holes at their nose. The draw bolt is used for managing for
locking the arbor with the spindle and the whole assembly.

The arbor assembly consists of the following components.
1. Arbor

2. Spindle

3. Spacing collars

4. Bearing bi

5. Cutter

6. Draw bolt

7. Lock nut

8. Key block

9. Set screw



2 Planer Type Milling Machine

It is a heavy duty milling machine. It resembles a planer and like a planning machine
it has a cross rail capable of being raised or lowered carrying the cutters, their heads, and
the saddles, all supported by rigid uprights. There may be a number of independent spindles
carrying cutters on the rail as two heads on the uprights. The use of the machine is limited
to production work only and is considered ultimate in metal re-moving capacity.

3 Special Type Milling Machines

Milling machines of non-conventional design have been developed to suit special purposes.
The features that they have in common are the spindle for rotating the cutter and provision
for moving the tool or the work in different directions.

6. SIZE OF MILLING MACHINE


The size of the column and knee type milling machine is specified by

(1) The dimensions of the working surface of the table, and

(2) Its maximum length of longitudinal, cross and vertical travel of the table.

In addition to above, number of spindle speeds, number of feeds, spindle nose taper,
power available, floor space required and net weight of machine will also be required for
additional specification.

7. Cutting Speed, Feeds and DEPTH OF CUT


The depth of cut in milling is defined as the thickness of the material removed in one
pass of the work under the cutter. Thus it is the perpendicular distance measured between
the original and final surface of the workpiece, and is expressed in mm.


8 INDEXING AND DIVIDING HEADS



Indexing is the operation of dividing the periphery of a piece of work into any number
of equal parts. In cutting spur gear equal spacing of teeth on the gear blank is performed by
indexing. Indexing is accomplished by using a special attachment known as dividing head or
index head as shown in Fig. 24.8. The dividing heads are of three types:

(1) Plain or simple dividing head,

(2) Universal dividing head and

(3) Optical dividing head.


1 Plain or Simple Dividing Head

The plain dividing head comprises a cylindrical spindle housed on a frame, and a base
bolted to the machine table. The index crank is connected to the tail end of the spindle
directly, and the crank and the spindle rotate as one unit. The index plate is mounted on the
spindle and rotates with it. The spindle may be rotated through the desired angle and then
clamped by inserting the clamping lever pin into anyone of the equally spaced holes or slots
cut on the periphery of the index plate. This type of dividing head is used for handling large
number of workpieces, which require a very small number of divisions on the periphery.

1. Swiveling block 2. Live centre

3. Index crank 4. Index plate.


9 OPERATIONS PERFORMED ON MILLING MACHINE


Unlike a lathe, a milling cutter does not give a continuous cut, but begins with a sliding
motion between the cutter and the work. Then follows a crushing movement, and then a
cutting operation by which the chip is removed. Many different kinds of operations can be
performed on a milling machine but a few of the more common operations will now be
explained. These are:

Plain milling or slab milling

 It is a method of producing
a plain, flat, horizontal surface parallel to the axis of rotation of the cutter.

Face milling

 It is a method of producing a flat
surface at right angles to the axis of the cutter.

Side milling

 It is the operation of production of a
flat vertical surface on the side of a work-piece by using a side milling cutter.

Angular milling

 It is a method of producing a flat
surface making an angle to the axis of the cutter.

Gang-milling

 It is a method of milling by means of
two or more cutters simultaneously having same or different diameters mounted on the arbor
of the milling machine.

Form milling

 It is, a method of producing a surface
having an irregular outline.

End milling

 It is a method of milling slots, flat surfaces,
and profiles by end mills.

Profile milling

 It is the operation of reproduction of an
outline of a template or complex shape of a master die on a workpiece.

Saw milling

 It is a method of producing deep slots and
cutting materials into the required length by slitting saws.

T-slot milling



Keyway milling


Gear cutting milling



Helical milling



Flute milling

It is a method of grooving or cutting of flutes on drills, reamers, taps, etc,


Straddle milling

It is a method of milling two sides of a piece of work by employing two side-milling
cutters at the same time.

Thread milling

It is a method of milling threads on dies, screws, worms, etc. both internally and
externally. As an alternative to the screw cutting in a lathe, this method is being more
extensively introduced now a day in modern machine shops.






Define the following terms used in milling operation.

(а) Cutting speed

(b) Feed

(c) Depth of cut

(d) Machining time.


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SmithyCo Videos  total 50 are there


Updated on 14 March 2020
14 May 2012

Introduction to Lathe - Turning Operations


An engine lathe is the most basic and simplest form of the lathe.  Besides the simple turning operation,  lathe can be used to carry out other operations  such as drilling, reaming, boring, taper turning, knurling, screw-thread cutting, grinding etc.

TYPES OF LATHE


1. Speed lathe

(a) Wood working
( b ) Spinning
(c) Centering
(d) Polishing


2. Centre or engine lathe

(a) Belt drive
( b ) Individual motor drive
(c) Gear head lathe

3. Bench lathe

4. Tool room Lathe

5. Capstan and Turret lathe

6. Special purpose lathe

(a) Wheel lathe
( b ) Gap bed lathe
(c) Duplicating lathe
(d) T-lathe

7. Automatic lathe

SPECIFICATION OF LATHE 


The size of a lathe is generally specified by the following means:

(a) Swing or maximum diameter that can be rotated over the bed ways

( b ) Maximum length of the job that can be held between head stock and tail stock centres

(c) Bed length, which may include head stock length also

( d ) Maximum diameter of the bar that can pass through spindle or collect chuck of capstan lathe.


(i) Maximum swing over bed
(ii) Maximum swing over carriage
(iii) Height of centers over bed
(iv) Maximum distance between centers
(v) Length of bed
(vi) Width of bed
(vii) Morse taper of center
(viii ) Diameter of hole through spindle
(ix) Face plate diameter
(x) Size of tool post
(xi) Number of spindle speeds
(xii) Lead screw diameter and number of threads per cm.
(xiii) Size of electrical motor
(xiv) Pitch range of metric and inch threads etc.



Introduction to lathe - Monash University Video
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CUTTING SPEED

Cutting speed for lathe work may be defined as the rate in meters per minute at which
the surface of the job moves past the cutting tool. Machining at a correct cutting speed is
highly important for good tool life and efficient cutting. Too slow cutting speeds reduce
productivity and increase manufacturing costs whereas too high cutting speeds result in
overheating of the tool and premature failure of the cutting edge of the tool. The following
factors affect the cutting speed:

(i) Kind of material being cut,

(ii) Cutting tool material,

(Hi) Shape of cutting tool,

(iv) Rigidity of machine tool and the job piece and

(v) Type of cutting fluid being used.

Calculation of cutting speed Cs, in meters per minute 

Cs = ((22/7) x D x N)) /1000

Where

D is diameter of job in mm.

N is in RPM


FEED 


Feed is defined as the distance that a tool advances into the work during one revolution
of the headstock spindle. It is usually given as a linear movement per revolution of the spindle
or job. During turning a job on the center lathe, the saddle and the tool post move along the
bed of the lathe for a particular feed for cutting along the length of the rotating job.




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Smithyco videos - 50 videos are there

Updated on 14 March 2020
27 October 2015

Friday, February 28, 2020

IMTMA - Modern Manufacturing India Magazine



Latest January 2020 Issue
http://www.mmindia.co.in/flipbook/jan2k20/#page/72

Case: Industry 4.0 in Godrej
Smart fixtures

Latest May 2019 Issue
https://www.imtma.in/pages/145/mmi-magazine

January 2014 Issue
http://www.imtma.in/userfiles/files/File/MMI/MMIjan2k14issue1.pdf


Companies Editorially mentioned in the issue

A
ABB Group .............. .38
Ace Micromatic Group ...... .61
ACMA ................ 32,62
Ampco Metal ............. .64
Automation Industry Association .............. .26

B
Bajaj Motors ............. .63
Batliboi Ltd .............. .61
BFW Ltd ................ .61
Bharat Electronics Ltd ...... .63
Bharat Heavy Electricals ..... .63
BorgWarner Turbo Systems
Worldwide Headquarters .... .52
Bosch Ltd ............... .61
Boschert GmbH + Co KG .... .64
Brakes India Ltd ........... .52

C
Carl Zeiss India (Bangalore) Pvt Ltd ................. .64
Claas .................. .38
Cummins India ........... .38

D
Danfoss ................. .38
Delcam Software .......... .61
Deutsche Messe. . . . . . . . . . . .24
DMG MORI ............ 26,76
DRDO .................. .63

E
EEPC India .............. .38

F
Fanuc .................. .63
Festo Controls ............ .61
Forbes Marshall ........... .48
Force Motors ............. .63
Frost & Sullivan ......... 25,26

G
Grind Master Machines ..... .64
GW Precision Tools India .... .61

H
HAESL .................. .46
Hexagon Metrology India .... .61
Hypertherm (India) Thermal
Cutting ................. .64

I
IMTMA ........ .8,10,22,60,62
Indian Railways ........... .63
International Institute of
Welding ................ .56
Inverto ................. .38
Isgec Heavy Engineering Ltd . . .65
ISRO ................... .63

J
Jinan Tianchen Machine Group .65
Jyoti CNC Automation Ltd ... .61

K
Kennametal India Limited .... .24
Kjellberg Finsterwalde Plasma
und Maschinen GmbH ...... .65
Kubota India ............. .38

L
Laser Technologies Pvt Ltd ... .65
LVD Strippit India Pvt Ltd .... .24

M
M. D. Corporation ......... .65
Metrol Corporation India . . 52,76
Micromatic Machine Tools ... .18

N
Naval Dockyard ........... .63

P
Pentair ................. .38

R
Radcam Technologies ....... .64
Renishaw Metrology Systems . .46

S
Sahajanand Laser
Technologies ........... 34,62
Salvagnini Italia ........... .62
Schuler India ........... 62,65
Sheths’ ................. .63
SIAM ................... .63
Siemens .............. 20,48
Singhal Power Press ........ .63
Sumitomo Electric ......... .24
Sundaram Finance Ltd ...... .52
T
TaeguTec India Pvt Ltd .... 8,62
TAGMA ................. .63
Titan Industries ........... .63
Toyota Kirloskar Motors ..... .63
TRUMPF ................ .63
Turbo Energy Ltd .......... .52
TVS Motors .............. .63
V
VDMA Robotik + Automation . .26
VDW-Nachwuchsstiftung .... .24
Volvo India Pvt Ltd ......... .63
Y
Yamazaki Mazak .......... .63


Updated on 29 Feb 2020,  29 July 2019, 7 March 2014

Monday, October 28, 2019

Manufacturing Processes- Technology - Engineering - Books - Bibliography




Machine Tools
Dr. R. Kesavan
Laxmi Publications, Ltd., 2010 - Machine-tools - 454 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=ojUSAga14cMC


Manufacturing Technology - II
Dr. R.Kesavan, B. Vijaya Ramanath
Firewall Media, 2006 - 467 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=4-I0IoGxJrAC

Sunday, September 1, 2019

Metal Casting







PERMANENT MOLD OR GRAVITY DIE CASTING

This process is commonly known as permanent mold casting in U.S.A and gravity die casting in England. A permanent mold casting makes use of a mold or metallic die which is permanent. Molten metal is poured into the mold under gravity only and no external pressure is applied to force the liquid metal into the mold cavity.  The metallic mold can be reused many times before it is discarded or rebuilt.

The molds are made of dense, fine grained, heat resistant cast iron, steel, bronze, anodized aluminum, graphite or other suitable refractoriness. The mold is made in two halves in order to facilitate the removal of casting from the mold. It may be designed with a vertical parting line or with a horizontal parting line as in conventional sand molds.

The mold walls of a permanent mold have thickness from 15 mm to 50 mm. The thicker mold walls can remove greater amount of heat from the casting. For faster cooling, fins or projections may be provided on the outside of the permanent mold. This provides the desirable chilling effect.

Advantages

(i) Fine and dense grained structure is achieved in the casting. Because of rapid rate of cooling, the castings possess fine grain structure.
(ii) No blow holes exist in castings produced by this method.  Good surface finish and surface details are obtained.  defects observed in sand castings are eliminated.
(iii) The process is economical for mass production. Fast rate of production can be attained.
(iv)  Close dimensional tolerance or job accuracy is possible to achieve on the cast product.
(v) Manpower required is less.


Disadvantages

(i) The cost of metallic mold is higher than the sand mold. The process is impractical for large castings.
(ii) The surface of casting becomes hard due to chilling effect.
(iii) Refractoriness of the high melting point alloys.

Applications

(i) This method is suitable for small and medium sized casting such as carburetor bodies, oil pump bodies, connecting rods, pistons etc.
(ii) It is widely suitable for non-ferrous casting.


PRESSURE DIE CASTING

Molten metal is forced into metallic mold or die under pressure in pressure die casting. The pressure is generally created by compressed air or hydraulically means. The pressure varies from 70 to 5000 kg/cm 2 and is maintained while the casting solidifies. The application of high pressure is associated with the high velocity with which the liquid metal is injected into the die to provide a unique capacity for the production of intricate components at a relatively low cost. This process is called simply die casting in USA. The die casting machine should be properly designed to hold and operate a die under pressure smoothly. There are two general types of molten metal ejection mechanisms adopted in die casting set ups which are:

(i) Hot chamber type
(a) Gooseneck or air injection management
(b) Submerged plunger management
(ii) Cold chamber type

Die casting is widely used for mass production and is most suitable for non-ferrous metals and alloys of low fusion temperature. The casting process is economic and rapid. The surface achieved in casting is so smooth that it does not require any finishing operation. The material is dense and homogeneous and has no possibility of sand inclusions or other cast impurities. Uniform thickness on castings can also be maintained.

The principal base metals most commonly employed in the casting are zinc, aluminum, and copper, magnesium, lead and tin. Depending upon the melting point temperature of alloys and their suitability for the die casting, they are classified as high melting point (above 540°C) and low melting point (below 500°C) alloys. Under low category involves zinc, tin and lead base alloys. Under high temperature category aluminum and copper base alloys are involved.


Applications

1. Carburetor bodies
2. Hydraulic brake cylinders
3. Refrigeration castings
4. Washing machine
5. Connecting rods and automotive pistons
6. Oil pump bodies
7. Gears and gear covers
8. Aircraft and missile castings, and
9. Typewriter segments


Chapter Contents - Groover

10 FUNDAMENTALS OF METAL CASTING

Chapter Contents

10.1 Overview of Casting Technology
10.1.1 Casting Processes
10.1.2 Sand-Casting Molds

10.2 Heating and Pouring
10.2.1 Heating the Metal
10.2.2 Pouring the Molten Metal
10.2.3 Engineering Analysis of Pouring
10.2.4 Fluidity

10.3 Solidification and Cooling
10.3.1 Solidification of Metals
10.3.2 Solidification Time
10.3.3 Shrinkage
10.3.4 Directional Solidification
10.3.5 Riser Design


The starting work material is either a liquid or is in a highly plastic condition, and  parts are  created through solidification of the material. Casting and molding processes dominate this category of shaping operations.

Casting is a process in which molten metal flows by gravity or other force into a mold where it solidifies in the shape of the mold cavity. Casting also means the part that is made by the casting  process.


11. METAL CASTING PROCESSES

Chapter Contents

11.1 Sand Casting
11.1.1 Patterns and Cores
11.1.2 Molds and Mold Making
11.1.3 The Casting Operation


11.2 Other Expendable-Mold Casting Processes
11.2.1 Shell Molding
11.2.2 Vacuum Molding
11.2.3 Expanded Polystyrene Process
11.2.4 Investment Casting
11.2.5 Plaster-Mold and Ceramic-Mold Casting


11.3 Permanent-Mold Casting Processes
11.3.1 The Basic Permanent-Mold Process
11.3.2 Variations of Permanent-Mold Casting
11.3.3 Die Casting
11.3.4 Squeeze Casting and Semisolid Metal Casting
11.3.5 Centrifugal Casting

11.4 Foundry Practice
11.4.1 Furnaces
11.4.2 Pouring, Cleaning, and Heat Treatment

11.5 Casting Quality

11.6 Metals for Casting

11.7 Product Design Consideration

Updated on 2 September 2019, 12 August 2018

Saturday, August 31, 2019

Engineering Materials for Product Design and Fabrication



INTRODUCTION 


Engineering materials used to manufacture of articles or products, dictates which manufacturing process or processes are to be used to provide it the desired shape. Sometimes, it is possible to use more than one manufacturing processes, then the best possible process must be utilized in manufacture of product. It is therefore important to know what materials are available in the universe with it usual cost. What are the common characteristics of engineering materials such as physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal, optical, electrical, and mechanical? How they can be processed economically to get the desired product. The basic knowledge of engineering materials and their properties is of great significance for a design, manufacturing and industrial engineers. The elements of tools, machines and equipments should be made of such a material which has properties suitable for the conditions of operation. In addition to this, a product designer, tool designer and design engineer should always be familiar with various kinds of  engineering materials, their properties and applications to meet the functional requirements of the design product. Product industrial engineers also need to have this knowledge. They must understand all the effects which the manufacturing processes and heat treatment have on the properties of the engineering materials.

CLASSIFICATION OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS 


A large numbers of engineering materials exists in the universe such as metals and non metals (leather, rubber, asbestos, plastic, ceramics, organic polymers, composites and semiconductor).  Leather is generally used for shoes, belt drives, packing, washers etc. It is highly flexible and can easily withstand against considerable wear under suitable conditions. Rubber is commonly employed as packing material, belt drive as an electric insulator. Asbestos is basically utilized for lagging round steam pipes and steam pipe and steam boilers because it is poor conductor of heat, so avoids loss of heat to the surroundings. Engineering materials may also be categorized into metals and alloys, ceramic materials, organic polymers, composites and semiconductors. The metal and alloys have tremendous applications for manufacturing the products required by the customers.


Metals and Alloys

Pure metals possess low strength and do not have the required properties. So, alloys are produced by melting or sintering two or more metals or metals and a non-metal, together. Alloys may consist of two more components. Metals and alloys are further classified into two major kind namely ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals.

(a) Ferrous metals are those which have the iron as their main constituent, such as pig iron, cast iron, wrought iron and steels.

( b ) Non-ferrous metals are those which have a metal other than iron as their main constituent, such as copper, aluminium, brass, bronze, tin, silver zinc, invar etc.

Ferrous metals are iron base metals which include all variety of pig iron, cast iron wrought iron and steels. The ferrous metals are those which have iron as their main constituents. The ferrous metals commonly used in engineering practice are cast iron, wrought iron, steel and alloy steels.

Main Types of Iron 


1. Pig iron
2. Cast iron

(A) White cast iron
(B) Gray cast iron
(C) Malleable cast iron
(D) Ductile cast iron
(E) Meehanite cast iron
(F) Alloy cast iron

3. Wrought iron
4. Steel

(A) Plain carbon steels
1. Dead Carbon steels
2. Low Carbon steels
3. Medium Carbon steels
4. High Carbon steels

(B) Alloy steels
1. High speed steel
2. Stainless steel



Grey Cast Iron: Applications
The grey iron castings are mainly used for machine tool bodies, automotive cylinder
blocks, pipes and pipe fittings and agricultural implements. The other applications involved
are

(i) Machine tool structures such as bed, frames, column etc.
(ii) Household appliances etc.
(iii) Gas or water pipes for under ground purposes.
(iv) Man holes covers.
(v) Piston rings.
(vi) Rolling mill and general machinery parts.
(vii) Cylinder blocks and heads for I.C. engines.
(viii) Frames of electric motor.
(ix) Ingot mould
(x) General machinery parts.
(xi) Sanitary wares.
(xii) Tunnel segment.

White Cast Iron: Applications
(i) For producing malleable iron castings.
(ii) For manufacturing those component or parts which require a hard, and abrasion resistant surface such as rim of car.
(iii) Railway brake blocks.

Malleable cast iron
Malleable cast iron are generally used to form automobile parts, agriculture
implementation, hinges, door keys, spanners mountings of all sorts, seat wheels, cranks,
levers thin, waned components of sewing machines and textiles machine parts.


Wrought Iron: Applications
It is used for making chains, crane hooks, railway couplings, and water and steam pipes. It has application in the form of plates, sheets, bars, structural works, forging blooms and billets, rivets, and a wide range of tubular products including pipe, tubing and casing, electrical conduit, cold drawn tubing, nipples and welding fittings, bridge railings, blast plates, drainage lines and troughs, sewer outfall lines, weir plates, sludge tanks and lines, condenser tubes, unfired heat exchangers, acid and alkali process lines, skimmer bars, diesel exhaust and air brake piping, gas collection hoods, coal equipment, cooling tower and spray pond piping.


Aluminium: Applications
It is mainly used in aircraft and automobile parts where saving of weight is an advantage.
The high resistance to corrosion and its non-toxicity make it a useful metal for cooking
utensils under ordinary conditions. Aluminium metal of high purity has got high reflecting
power in the form of sheets and is, therefore, widely used for reflectors, mirrors and telescopes.
It is used in making furniture, doors and window components, rail road, trolley cars, automobile
bodies and pistons, electrical cables, rivets, kitchen utensils and collapsible tubes for pastes.
Aluminium foil is used as silver paper for food packing etc. In a finely divided flake form,
aluminium is employed as a pigment in paint. It is a cheap and very important non ferrous
metal used for making cooking utensils.

Copper: Applications
Copper is mainly used in making electric cables and wires for electric machinery, motor
winding, electric conducting appliances, and electroplating etc. It can be easily forged, casted,
rolled and drawn into wires. Copper in the form of tubes is used widely in heat transfer work
mechanical engineering field. It is used for household utensils. It is also used in production
of boilers, condensers, roofing etc. It is used for making useful alloys with tin, zinc, nickel
and aluminium. It is used to form alloys like brass, bronze and gun metal. Alloys of copper
are made by alloying it with zinc, tin, and lead and these find wide range of applications.
Brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc, finds applications in utensils, household fittings,
decorative objects, etc. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin and possesses very good corrosion
resistance. It is used in making valves and bearings. Brass and bronze can be machined at
high speeds to fine surface finish.


Red Brass: Applications
Red brass is mainly utilized for making, heat exchanger tubes, condenser, radiator cores,
plumbing pipes, sockets, hardware, etc.

Muntz metal: Applications
It is utilized for making for making tubes, automotive radiator cores, hardware fasteners, rivets, springs, plumber accessories and in tube manufacture.

Admiralty Brass: Applications
Admiralty brass is utilized for making condenser tubes in marine and other installations. It is used for making plates used for ship building. It is utilized also for making bolts, nuts, washers, condenser plant and ship fittings parts, etc.

Updated on 2 September 2019, 23 August 2019

Friday, August 30, 2019

Metal Cutting: Theory and Practice - Stephenson and Agapiou - Book Information and Chapter Summaries



https://books.google.co.in/books?id=PvK72Ymaj10C

3rd Edition
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=77n1CwAAQBAJ

1. Introduction

2. Metal Cutting Operations

1. Introduction
2. Turning,
3. Boring,
4. Drilling,
    Deep Hole Drilling
    Microdrilling
5. Reaming,
6. Milling
7. Planing and Shaping
8. Broaching
9. Tapping and Threading
10. Grinding and Related Abrasive Processes
     Lapping, Honing
11. Roller Burnishing
12. Deburring

3. Machine Tools

1. Introduction
2. Production Machine Tools
3. CNC Machine Tools and Cellular Manufacturing Systems
4. Machine Tools Structures
5. Slides and Guideways
6. Axis Drives
7. Spindles
8. Coolant systems
9. Tool Changing Systems




Updated on 31 August 2019, 26 August 2019, 4 April 2015